The scope and sequence of the SILO project seeks to articulate essential STEM concepts and skills throughout the primary years. Figure 4.1 depicts a condensed version of the main STEM themes listed in Table 4.1.
Figure 4.1
Condensed Scope and Sequence for the SILO Project
In addition to showing the scope and sequence
for the 28 STEM units, Table 4.1 also maps curriculum outcomes from the
NSW Syllabus with The Australian Curriculum. The 'Learning intention'
column merges these two curriculum documents as condensed statements of
each learning intention. You will notice that although the paraphrased
learning intentions are usually shorter, they are often deeper too.
Table 4.1
A Provisional Scope and Sequence for Primary STEM Education
Year 
Name of unit

NSW Syllabus

Australian Curriculum (v 9.0)

Learning intention

Scope and sequence

Focus

F.1 
Investigations

"A student observes, questions and
collects data to communicate ideas." (STe1WSS)

"Students learn to engage in
investigations safely and make observations using their senses."
(AC9SFI02)

Students
share
observations and answer questions about data which they
have collected.


Observations

F.2 
Classification

"A student compares features and
characteristics of living and nonliving things." (ST24LWS)

"Students learn to compare
characteristics of living and nonliving things and examine the
differences between the life cycles of plants and animals."
(AC9S3U01)

Students
compare features of living and nonliving things to explore
classification systems
and devise new ones.


Criteria

F.3 
Living things

"A student explores the
characteristics, needs and uses of living things." (STe3LWST)

"Students learn to observe external
features of plants and animals and describe ways they can be
grouped based on these features." (AC9SFU01)

Students
explore the characteristics, needs and uses of living things.

Life
cycles

Cycles

F.4 
Ecosystems

"A student describes observable
features of living things and their environments." (ST14LWS)

"Student identify the basic needs of
plants and animals, including air, water, food or shelter, and
describe how the places they live meet those needs." (AC9S1U01)

Students
learn about systems in the context of living things and the
environment.

Sustainability

Sustainability

1.1 
Graphs

"A student reasons about
representations of data to describe and interpret the results."
(MA1DATA02)

"Students learn to represent
collected data for a categorical variable using onetoone
displays and digital tools where appropriate; compare the data
using frequencies and discuss the findings." (AC9M1ST02)

Students
reason about representations of data to describe and interpret
the results.


Representations

1.2 
Symbols

"A student describes and compares
the masses of objects." (MAENSM01)

"Students learn to quantify and
compare collections to at least 20 using counting and explain or
demonstrate reasoning." (AC9MFN03)

Students
make comparisons and use symbols to describe relationships.


Comparisons

1.3 
Materials

"A student identifies that objects
are made of materials that have observable properties."
(STe4MWST)

"Students learn to recognise that
objects can be composed of different materials and describe the
observable properties of those materials." (AC9SFU03)

Students
identify observable properties of materials and explore how
these properties affect their use.

Properties
of materials

Properties

1.4 
Light and sound

"A student describes the
characteristics and effects of common forms of energy, such as
light and heat." (ST28PWST)
"A student describes common forms of
energy and explores some characteristics of sound energy."
(ST18PWS)

"Students learn to identify sources of light, recognise that light travels in a straight path and describe how shadows are formed and light can be reflected and refracted." (AC9S5U03) 
Students explore the sources
and behaviour of light and sound energy and plan their own
experiments to investigate phenomena.


Angles

2.1 
Shapes and objects

"A student recognises, describes and
represents shapes including quadrilaterals and other common
polygons." (MA12DS01)
"A student recognises, describes
and represents familiar threedimensional objects." (MA13DS01)

"Students learn to make, compare and
classify familiar shapes; recognise familiar shapes and objects in
the environment, identifying the similarities and differences
between them." (AC9M1SP01)

Students
recognise, represent and classify familiar twodimensional
shapes and threedimensional objects


Dimensions

2.2 
Construction zone

"A student uses materials, tools and
equipment to develop solutions for a need or opportunity."
(ST12DPT)

"Students learn to use materials,
components, tools, equipment and techniques to safely make
designed solutions." (AC9TDE2P02)

Students use materials, tools and
equipment to develop solutions for a need or opportunity..


Engineering

2.3 
Fair tests

"A student gathers and organises
data, displays data in lists, tables and picture graphs."
(MA1DATA01)

"Students learn to acquire data for
categorical variables through surveys, observation, experiment and
using digital tools; sort data into relevant categories and
display data using lists and tables." (AC9M2ST01)

Students
identify questions of interest and define variables to guide
their investigations and presentations of relevant data.


Variables

2.4 
Algorithms

"A student describes, follows and
represents algorithms to solve problems." (ST13DPT)

"Students learn to recognise,
describe and create additive patterns that increase or decrease by
a constant amount, using numbers, shapes and objects, and identify
missing elements in the pattern." (AC9M2A01)

Students
explore number patterns as an introduction to algorithms.

Algorithms

Algorithms

3.1 
Communication

"A student describes how digital
systems represent and transmit data." (ST211DIT)

"Students write and create texts to
communicate findings and ideas for identified purposes and
audiences, using scientific vocabulary and digital tools as
appropriate." (AC9S3I06)

Students
demonstrate their understanding of STEM concepts using
multimodality customised for different audiences.


Multimodality

3.2 
Satellites

"A student investigates regular
changes caused by interactions between the Earth and the Sun, and
changes to the Earth’s surface." (ST210ESS)

"Students learn to describe the
movement of Earth and other planets relative to the sun and model
how Earth’s tilt, rotation on its axis and revolution around the
sun relate to cyclic observable phenomena, including variable day
and night length." (AC9S6U02)

Students
explore night and day and
seasonal changes in relation to orbiting bodies and then apply
this knowledge to global communications and satellites.


Gravity

3.3 
Questioning and predicting

"A student questions, plans and
conducts scientific investigations, collects and summarises data
and communicates using scientific representations." (ST21WSS)

"Students learn to pose questions to
explore observed patterns and relationships and make predictions
based on observations." (AC9S3I01)

Students plan and conduct scientific
investigations to answer questions using representations
of data.


Hypotheses

3.4 
Coding

"A student defines problems,
describes and follows algorithms to develop solutions."
(ST23DPT)

"Students learn to implement simple
algorithms as visual programs involving control structures and
input." (AC9TDI4P04)

Students engage in coding to interact
with virtual and tangible objects.

Coding

Coding

4.1 
Simple machines

"A student describes how contact and
noncontact forces affect an object’s motion." (ST29PWST)

"Students learn to identify how
forces can be exerted by one object on another and investigate the
effect of frictional, gravitational and magnetic forces on the
motion of objects." (AC9S4U03)

Students
identify, explain and demonstrate a variety of contact and
noncontact forces.


Mechanical advantage

4.2 
Transportation

"A student investigates the
suitability of natural and processed materials for a range of
purposes." (ST27MWT)

"Students learn to describe how
forces and the properties of materials affect function in a
product or system." (AC9TDE4K02)

Students
explore common modes of transportation to develop an integrated
understanding of forces,
materials, energy and design factors.


Motion

4.3 
Sensors

"A student questions, plans and
conducts scientific investigations, collects and summarises data
and communicates using scientific representations." (ST21WSS)

"Students learn to implement simple
algorithms as visual programs involving control structures and
input." (AC9TDI4P04)

Students
use micro controllers to monitor and log data from electronic
sensors.

Automation

Analog to digital conversions

4.4 
Precision agriculture

"A student describes how
agricultural processes are used to grow plants and raise animals
for food, clothing and shelter." (ST25LWT)

"Students learn to explore how
plants and animals are grown for food, clothing and shelter."
(AC9TDE2K03)

Students
explore how agricultural processes are used to grow plants and
raise animals.

Precision
agriculture

Precision agriculture

5.1 
Biochemistry

"A student plans and conducts
scientific investigations to answer testable questions, and
collects and summarises data to communicate conclusions."
(ST31WSS)

"Students compare reversible
changes, including dissolving and changes of state, and
irreversible changes, including cooking and rusting that produce
new substances." (AC9S6U04)

Students
explore the chemistry of living organisms.

Chemical
reactions

Chemical reactions

5.2 
Manufacturing

"A student defines problems, and
designs, modifies and follows algorithms to develop solutions."
(ST33DPT)

"Students learn to explain how
characteristics and properties of materials, systems, components,
tools and equipment affect their use when producing designed
solutions." (AC9TDE6K05)

Students
solve problems through the safe and creative use of materials,
tools and equipment.


Manufacturing

5.3 
Logistics

"A student collects discrete data
and constructs graphs using a given scale." (MA2DATA01)
"A student interprets data in tables, dot plots and column graphs." (MA2DATA02) 
"Students learn to recognise
different types of data and explore how the same data can be
represented differently depending on the purpose." (AC9TDI4K03)

Students
design their own enterprises and explore how the associated
logistics and data can be represented in different ways.


Logistics

5.4 
Ideation

"A student plans and uses materials,
tools and equipment to develop solutions for a need or
opportunity." (ST32DPT)

"Students learn to generate, iterate
and communicate design ideas, decisions and processes using
technical terms and graphical representation techniques, including
using digital tools." (AC9TDE6P02)

Students
use the design cycle to develop prototypes for inventions
using appropriate technical terms and graphical representation
techniques.

Prototypes

Pitching an idea

6.1 
Cartesian geometry

"A student locates and describes
points on a coordinate plane." (MA3GM01)

"Students learn to recognise
situations, including financial contexts, that use integers;
locate and represent integers on a number line and as coordinates
on the Cartesian plane." (AC9M6N01)

Students
explore the Cartesian coordinate system linking geometry with
algebra.

Algebra

Coordinates

6.2 
Electronics

"A student explains how energy is
transformed from one form to another." (ST38PWST)

"Students learn to investigate the
transfer and transformation of energy in electrical circuits,
including the role of circuit components, insulators and
conductors." (AC9S6U03)

Students
explore how electrical energy can be can be generated from a
range of sources and can be transferred and transformed in
electrical circuits.


Circuits

6.3 
Robotics

"A student explains how digital
systems represent data, connect together to form networks and
transmit data." (ST311DIT)

"Students learn to explain how
electrical energy can be transformed into movement, sound or light
in a product or system." (AC9TDE6K02)

Students
use coding
and electric sensors to interact with electronic
devices.


Robotics

6.4 
Nanotechnology 
"A student selects and uses the
appropriate unit to estimate, measure and calculate volumes and
capacities." (MA33DS02)

"Students learn to convert between
common metric units of length, mass and capacity; choose and use
decimal representations of metric measurements relevant to the
context of a problem." (AC9M6M01)

Students
convert between metric units of length, mass and capacity and
make relevant connections to the properties of water.


Ratios
