Scope and sequence

The scope and sequence of the SILO project seeks to articulate essential STEM knowledge and skills throughout the primary years.

Name of unit
NSW Syllabus
Australian Curriculum (v 9.0)
Learning intention
Scope and sequence
"A student observes, questions and collects data to communicate ideas." (STe-1WS-S)

"Students learn to engage in investigations safely and make observations using their senses." (AC9SFI02)

Students share observations and answer questions about data which they have collected.
  • Observations
  • Tallies
  • Data
  • Tables
"A student describes and compares the masses of objects." (MAE-NSM-01)
"Students learn to quantify and compare collections to at least 20 using counting and explain or demonstrate reasoning." (AC9MFN03)
Students make comparisons and use symbols to describe relationships.
  • Comparisons
  • =
  • <
  • >

Living things 
"A student explores the characteristics, needs and uses of living things." (STe-3LW-ST)

"Students learn to observe external features of plants and animals and describe ways they can be grouped based on these features." (AC9SFU01)
Students explore the characteristics, needs and uses of living things.
Life cycles
"A student identifies that objects are made of materials that have observable properties." (STe-4MW-ST)
"Students learn to recognise that objects can be composed of different materials and describe the observable properties of those materials." (AC9SFU03)
Students identify observable properties of materials and explore how these properties affect their use.
Properties of materials

"A student reasons about representations of data to describe and interpret the results." (MA1-DATA-02)

"Students learn to represent collected data for a categorical variable using one-to-one displays and digital tools where appropriate; compare the data using frequencies and discuss the findings." (AC9M1ST02)
Students reason about representations of data to describe and interpret the results.
  • Representations
  • Bar graphs
"A student describes how agricultural processes are used to grow plants and raise animals for food, clothing and shelter." (ST2-5LW-T)
"Students learn to explore how plants and animals are grown for food, clothing and shelter." (AC9TDE2K03)
Students explore how agricultural processes are used to grow plants and raise animals.
Problem solving
Precision agriculture
"A student describes how the properties of materials determine their use." (ST1-7MW-T)
"Students learn to generate and communicate design ideas through describing, drawing or modelling, including using digital tools." (AC9TDE2P01)
Students generate and record design ideas through describing, drawing and modelling.
Construction zone 
"A student uses materials, tools and equipment to develop solutions for a need or opportunity." (ST1-2DP-T)
"Students learn to use materials, components, tools, equipment and techniques to safely make designed solutions." (AC9TDE2P02)
Students use materials, tools and equipment to develop solutions for a need or opportunity.
  • Tools
  • Brainstorming
Light and sound
"A student describes the characteristics and effects of common forms of energy, such as light and heat." (ST2-8PW-ST)
"A student describes common forms of energy and explores some characteristics of sound energy." (ST1-8PW-S)
"Students learn to identify sources of light, recognise that light travels in a straight path and describe how shadows are formed and light can be reflected and refracted." (AC9S5U03) "Students explore different actions to make sounds and how to make a variety of sounds, and recognise that sound energy causes objects to vibrate." (AC9S2U02)
Students explore the sources and behaviour of light and sound energy and plan their own experiments to investigate phenomena.
  • Angles
  • Reflection
  • Refraction
Shapes and objects
"A student recognises, describes and represents shapes including quadrilaterals and other common polygons." (MA1-2DS-01)
"A student recognises, describes and represents familiar three-dimensional objects." (MA1-3DS-01)
"Students learn to make, compare and classify familiar shapes; recognise familiar shapes and objects in the environment, identifying the similarities and differences between them." (AC9M1SP01)
Students recognise, represent and classify familiar two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects.
  • Perimeter
  • Area
  • Volume
  • Capacity
  • Venn diagrams
  • Classification
Data and variables
"A student gathers and organises data, displays data in lists, tables and picture graphs." (MA1-DATA-01)
"Students learn to acquire data for categorical variables through surveys, observation, experiment and using digital tools; sort data into relevant categories and display data using lists and tables." (AC9M2ST01)
Students identify questions of interest and define variables to guide their investigations and presentations of relevant data.
  • Variables
  • Fair tests
Algebra and algorithms
"A student describes, follows and represents algorithms to solve problems." (ST1-3DP-T)
"Students learn to recognise, describe and create additive patterns that increase or decrease by a constant amount, using numbers, shapes and objects, and identify missing elements in the pattern." (AC9M2A01)
Students explore number patterns as an introduction to algebra and algorithms.
  • Formulas
  • Algebra
  • Algorithms
"A student investigates regular changes caused by interactions between the Earth and the Sun, and changes to the Earthís surface." (ST2-10ES-S)
"Students learn to describe the movement of Earth and other planets relative to the sun and model how Earthís tilt, rotation on its axis and revolution around the sun relate to cyclic observable phenomena, including variable day and night length." (AC9S6U02)
Students explore night and day and seasonal changes in relation to orbiting bodies and then apply this knowledge to global communications and satellites.
  • Gravity
  • Heliocentric model
"A student compares features and characteristics of living and non-living things." (ST2-4LW-S)
"Students learn to compare characteristics of living and non-living things and examine the differences between the life cycles of plants and animals." (AC9S3U01)
Students compare features of living and non-living things to explore classification systems and devise new ones.
  • Logic
  • Dichotomous keys
Questioning and predicting 
"A student questions, plans and conducts scientific investigations, collects and summarises data and communicates using scientific representations." (ST2-1WS-S)
"Students learn to pose questions to explore observed patterns and relationships and make predictions based on observations." (AC9S3I01)
Students plan and conduct scientific investigations to answer questions using representations of data.
  • Hypotheses
  • If-then statements
"A student defines problems, describes and follows algorithms to develop solutions." (ST2-3DP-T)
"Students learn to implement simple algorithms as visual programs involving control structures and input." (AC9TDI4P04)
Students engage in coding to interact with virtual and tangible objects.
Simple machines 
"A student describes how contact and non-contact forces affect an objectís motion." (ST2-9PW-ST)
"Students learn to identify how forces can be exerted by one object on another and investigate the effect of frictional, gravitational and magnetic forces on the motion of objects." (AC9S4U03)
Students identify, explain and demonstrate a variety of contact and non-contact forces.
  • Forces
  • Friction
  • Mechanical advantage
  • Ratios
  • Torque
"A student investigates the suitability of natural and processed materials for a range of purposes." (ST2-7MW-T)
"Students learn to describe how forces and the properties of materials affect function in a product or system." (AC9TDE4K02)
Students explore common modes of transportation to develop an integrated understanding of forces, materials, energy and design factors.
  • Motion
  • Exponents
  • Velocity
  • Acceleration
  • Relative motion
  • Hydraulics
"A student selects and uses materials, tools and equipment to develop solutions for a need or opportunity." (ST2-2DP-T)
"Students learn to generate, communicate and compare designs." (AC9TDI4P03)

Students select and use materials, tools and equipment to develop ethical solutions for societal needs and opportunities.
"A student collects discrete data and constructs graphs using a given scale." (MA2-DATA-01)
"A student interprets data in tables, dot plots and column graphs." (MA2-DATA-02)
"Students learn to recognise different types of data and explore how the same data can be represented differently depending on the purpose." (AC9TDI4K03)
Students design their own enterprises and explore how the associated logistics and data can be represented in different ways.
  • Logistics
  • Analytics
"A student explains how food and fibre are produced sustainably in managed environments for health and nutrition." (ST3-5LW-T)
"Students learn to examine how particular structural features and behaviours of living things enable their survival in specific habitats." (AC9S5U01)
Students explain how food and fibre are produced sustainably in managed environments for health and nutrition.
"A student plans and uses materials, tools and equipment to develop solutions for a need or opportunity." (ST3-2DP-T)
"Students learn to explain how characteristics and properties of materials, systems, components, tools and equipment affect their use when producing designed solutions."
Students solve problems through the safe and creative use of materials, tools and equipment.
  • Manufacturing
  • Project management
"A student plans and conducts scientific investigations to answer testable questions, and collects and summarises data to communicate conclusions." (ST3-1WS-S)
"Students learn to plan and conduct repeatable investigations to answer questions including, as appropriate, deciding the variables to be changed, measured and controlled in fair tests; describing potential risks; planning for the safe use of equipment and materials; and identifying required permissions to conduct investigations on Country/Place." (AC9S6I02)
Students choose relevant variables to plan and conduct fair tests and communicate results using flowcharts.
"A student defines problems, and designs, modifies and follows algorithms to develop solutions." (ST3-3DP-T)
"Students learn to generate, iterate and communicate design ideas, decisions and processes using technical terms and graphical representation techniques, including using digital tools." (AC9TDE6P02)
Students use the design cycle to develop prototypes for inventions using appropriate technical terms and graphical representation techniques.
"A student explains how energy is transformed from one form to another." (ST3-8PW-ST)
"Students learn to investigate the transfer and transformation of energy in electrical circuits, including the role of circuit components, insulators and conductors." (AC9S6U03)

Students explore how electrical energy can be can be generated from a range of sources and can be transferred and transformed in electrical circuits.
  • Energy
  • Circuits
Cartesian geometry
"A student locates and describes points on a coordinate plane." (MA3-GM-01)
"Students learn to recognise situations, including financial contexts, that use integers; locate and represent integers on a number line and as coordinates on the Cartesian plane." (AC9M6N01)
Students explore the Cartesian coordinate system linking geometry with algebra.
"A student explains how digital systems represent data, connect together to form networks and transmit data." (ST3-11DI-T)
"Students learn to explain how electrical energy can be transformed into movement, sound or light in a product or system." (AC9TDE6K02)
Students use coding and electric sensors to interact with electronic devices.
  • Robotics
  • Binary numbers
  • Hexadecimal numbers

"A student selects and uses the appropriate unit to estimate, measure and calculate volumes and capacities." (MA3-3DS-02)
"Students learn to convert between common metric units of length, mass and capacity; choose and use decimal representations of metric measurements relevant to the context of a problem." (AC9M6M01)
Students convert between metric units of length, mass and capacity and make relevant connections to the properties of water.
  • Ratios
  • Calibration
  • Ordinal scales
  • Linear scales
  • Logarithmic scales
  • Nanotechnology

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