The scope and sequence of the SILO project seeks to articulate essential STEM knowledge and skills throughout the primary years.
Year 
Name of unit

NSW Syllabus

Australian Curriculum (v 9.0)

Learning intention

Scope and sequence

Focus

F.1 
Investigations

"A student observes, questions and
collects data to communicate ideas." (STe1WSS)

"Students learn to engage in
investigations safely and make observations using their senses."
(AC9SFI02)

Students
share
observations and answer questions about data which they
have collected.


Observations 
F.2 
Symbols

"A student describes and compares
the masses of objects." (MAENSM01)

"Students learn to quantify and compare
collections to at least 20 using counting and explain or
demonstrate reasoning." (AC9MFN03)

Students
make
comparisons and use symbols to describe relationships.


Comparisons 
F.3 
Living things

"A student explores the
characteristics, needs and uses of living things." (STe3LWST)

"Students learn to observe external
features of plants and animals and describe ways they can be
grouped based on these features." (AC9SFU01)

Students
explore the characteristics, needs and uses of living things.

Life
cycles

Cycles 
F.4 
Materials

"A student identifies that objects
are made of materials that have observable properties."
(STe4MWST)

"Students learn to recognise that
objects can be composed of different materials and describe the
observable properties of those materials." (AC9SFU03)

Students
identify observable properties of materials and explore how
these properties affect their use.

Properties
of materials

Properties 
1.1 
Graphs

"A student reasons about
representations of data to describe and interpret the results."
(MA1DATA02)

"Students learn to represent
collected data for a categorical variable using onetoone
displays and digital tools where appropriate; compare the data
using frequencies and discuss the findings." (AC9M1ST02)

Students
reason about representations of data to describe and interpret
the results.

Bar graphs

Representations 
1.2 
Shapes and objects

"A student recognises, describes and
represents shapes including quadrilaterals and other common
polygons." (MA12DS01)
"A student recognises, describes and
represents familiar threedimensional objects." (MA13DS01)

"Students learn to make, compare and
classify familiar shapes; recognise familiar shapes and objects in
the environment, identifying the similarities and differences
between them." (AC9M1SP01)

Students
recognise, represent and classify familiar twodimensional
shapes and threedimensional objects.


Classification 
1.3 
Light and sound

"A student describes the
characteristics and effects of common forms of energy, such as
light and heat." (ST28PWST)
"A student describes common forms of energy and explores some characteristics of sound energy." (ST18PWS) 
"Students learn to identify sources
of light, recognise that light travels in a straight path and
describe how shadows are formed and light can be reflected and
refracted." (AC9S5U03)
"Students explore different actions
to make sounds and how to make a variety of sounds, and recognise
that sound energy causes objects to vibrate." (AC9S2U02)

Students
explore the sources and behaviour of light and sound energy and
plan their own experiments to investigate phenomena.


Sources 
1.4 
Design

"A student describes how the
properties of materials determine their use." (ST17MWT)

"Students learn to generate and
communicate design ideas through describing, drawing or modelling,
including using digital tools." (AC9TDE2P01)

Students
generate and record design ideas through describing, drawing and
modelling.

Affordances

Affordances 
2.1 
Algebra and algorithms

"A student describes, follows and
represents algorithms to solve problems." (ST13DPT)

"Students learn to recognise,
describe and create additive patterns that increase or decrease by
a constant amount, using numbers, shapes and objects, and identify
missing elements in the pattern." (AC9M2A01)

Students
explore number patterns as an introduction to algebra and
algorithms.


Formulas 
2.2 
Agriculture

"A student describes how
agricultural processes are used to grow plants and raise animals
for food, clothing and shelter." (ST25LWT)

"Students learn to explore how
plants and animals are grown for food, clothing and shelter."
(AC9TDE2K03)

Students
explore how agricultural processes are used to grow plants and
raise animals.


Precision agriculture 
2.3 
Construction zone

"A student uses materials, tools and
equipment to develop solutions for a need or opportunity."
(ST12DPT)

"Students learn to use materials,
components, tools, equipment and techniques to safely make
designed solutions." (AC9TDE2P02)

Students
use materials, tools and equipment to develop solutions for a
need or opportunity.

Brainstorming

Tools 
2.4 
Data and variables

"A student gathers and organises
data, displays data in lists, tables and picture graphs."
(MA1DATA01)

"Students learn to acquire data for
categorical variables through surveys, observation, experiment and
using digital tools; sort data into relevant categories and
display data using lists and tables." (AC9M2ST01)

Students
identify questions of interest and define variables to guide
their investigations and presentations of relevant data.


Variables 
3.1 
Satellites

"A student investigates regular
changes caused by interactions between the Earth and the Sun, and
changes to the Earth’s surface." (ST210ESS)

"Students learn to describe the
movement of Earth and other planets relative to the sun and model
how Earth’s tilt, rotation on its axis and revolution around the
sun relate to cyclic observable phenomena, including variable day
and night length." (AC9S6U02)

Students
explore night and day and
seasonal changes in relation to orbiting bodies and then apply
this knowledge to global communications and satellites.

Heliocentric
model

Angles 
3.2 
Classification

"A student compares features and
characteristics of living and nonliving things." (ST24LWS)

"Students learn to compare
characteristics of living and nonliving things and examine the
differences between the life cycles of plants and animals."
(AC9S3U01)

Students
compare features of living and nonliving things to explore
classification systems
and devise new ones.

Dichotomous
keys

Logic 
3.3 
Questioning and predicting

"A student questions, plans and
conducts scientific investigations, collects and summarises data
and communicates using scientific representations." (ST21WSS)

"Students learn to pose questions to
explore observed patterns and relationships and make predictions
based on observations." (AC9S3I01)

Students plan and conduct scientific
investigations to answer questions using representations
of data.

Ifthen
statements

Hypotheses 
3.4 
Coding

"A student defines problems,
describes and follows algorithms to develop solutions."
(ST23DPT)

"Students learn to implement simple
algorithms as visual programs involving control structures and
input." (AC9TDI4P04)

Students engage in coding to interact
with virtual and tangible objects.

Coding

Coding 
4.1 
Simple machines

"A student describes how contact and
noncontact forces affect an object’s motion." (ST29PWST)

"Students learn to identify how
forces can be exerted by one object on another and investigate the
effect of frictional, gravitational and magnetic forces on the
motion of objects." (AC9S4U03)

Students
can identify, explain and demonstrate a variety of contact and
noncontact forces.


Forces 
4.2 
Transportation

"A student investigates the
suitability of natural and processed materials for a range of
purposes." (ST27MWT)

"Students learn to describe how
forces and the properties of materials affect function in a
product or system." (AC9TDE4K02)

Students
explore common modes of transportation to develop an integrated
understanding of forces,
materials, energy and design factors.


Motion 
4.3 
Ideation

"A student selects and uses
materials, tools and equipment to develop solutions for a need or
opportunity." (ST22DPT)

"Students learn to generate,
communicate and compare designs." (AC9TDI4P03)

Students
select and use materials, tools and equipment to develop
ethical solutions for societal needs and opportunities.

Protocols

Protocols 
4.4 
Logistics

"A student collects discrete data
and constructs graphs using a given scale." (MA2DATA01)
"A student interprets data in tables, dot plots and column graphs." (MA2DATA02) 
"Students learn to recognise
different types of data and explore how the same data can be
represented differently depending on the purpose." (AC9TDI4K03)

Students
design their own enterprises and explore how the associated
logistics and data can be represented in different ways.


Logistics 
5.1 
Biochemistry

"A student explains how food and
fibre are produced sustainably in managed environments for health
and nutrition." (ST35LWT)

"Students learn to examine how
particular structural features and behaviours of living things
enable their survival in specific habitats." (AC9S5U01)

Students
explain how food and fibre are produced sustainably in managed
environments for health and nutrition.

Sustainability

Sustainability 
5.2 
Manufacturing

"A student plans and uses materials,
tools and equipment to develop solutions for a need or
opportunity." (ST32DPT)

"Students learn to explain how
characteristics and properties of materials, systems, components,
tools and equipment affect their use when producing designed
solutions."
(AC9TDE6K05) 
Students
solve problems through the safe and creative use of materials,
tools and equipment.

Project
management

Manufacturing 
5.3 
Flowcharts

"A student plans and conducts
scientific investigations to answer testable questions, and
collects and summarises data to communicate conclusions."
(ST31WSS)

"Students learn to plan and conduct
repeatable investigations to answer questions including, as
appropriate, deciding the variables to be changed, measured and
controlled in fair tests; describing potential risks; planning for
the safe use of equipment and materials; and identifying required
permissions to conduct investigations on Country/Place."
(AC9S6I02)

Students
choose relevant variables to plan and conduct fair tests and
communicate results using flowcharts.

Flowcharts

Flowcharts 
5.4 
Innovation

"A student defines problems, and
designs, modifies and follows algorithms to develop solutions."
(ST33DPT)

"Students learn to generate, iterate
and communicate design ideas, decisions and processes using
technical terms and graphical representation techniques, including
using digital tools." (AC9TDE6P02)

Students
use the design cycle to develop prototypes for inventions
using appropriate technical terms and graphical representation
techniques.

Prototypes

Prototypes 
6.1 
Electronics

"A student explains how energy is
transformed from one form to another." (ST38PWST)

"Students learn to investigate the
transfer and transformation of energy in electrical circuits,
including the role of circuit components, insulators and
conductors." (AC9S6U03)

Students
explore how electrical energy can be can be generated from a
range of sources and can be transferred and transformed in
electrical circuits.


Circuits 
6.2 
Cartesian geometry

"A student locates and describes
points on a coordinate plane." (MA3GM01)

"Students learn to recognise
situations, including financial contexts, that use integers;
locate and represent integers on a number line and as coordinates
on the Cartesian plane." (AC9M6N01)

Students
explore the Cartesian coordinate system linking geometry with
algebra.

Coordinates

Coordinates 
6.3 
Robotics

"A student explains how digital
systems represent data, connect together to form networks and
transmit data." (ST311DIT)

"Students learn to explain how
electrical energy can be transformed into movement, sound or light
in a product or system." (AC9TDE6K02)

Students
use coding
and electric sensors to interact with electronic
devices.


Robotics 
6.4 
Nanotechnology 
"A student selects and uses the
appropriate unit to estimate, measure and calculate volumes and
capacities." (MA33DS02)

"Students learn to convert between
common metric units of length, mass and capacity; choose and use
decimal representations of metric measurements relevant to the
context of a problem." (AC9M6M01)

Students
convert between metric units of length, mass and capacity and
make relevant connections to the properties of water.


Ratios 